Concern dumping output.


add_setting(name, default, help_, description)

Register a new config item.

cast(typ, val)

Cast a value to a type.

create_output([stdout, always_prefer_tty])

Return an Output instance for the command line.


Get the current active (running) Application.


Get the current application.


Update the key-binding registry.


BaseApp([title, set_title, leave_graphics, ...])

All euporie apps.


Container class that dynamically returns any Container.

FloatContainer(content, floats[, modal, ...])

Container which can contain another container for the background, as well as a list of floating containers on top of it.


Preview app.

PreviewNotebook(app[, path, use_kernel_history])

A notebook tab which renders cells sequentially.

PseudoTTY(underlying[, isatty])

Make an output stream look like a TTY.

UPath(*args, **kwargs)

Vt100_Output(stdout, get_size[, term, ...])

param get_size

A callable which returns the Size of the output terminal.

Window([content, width, height, z_index, ...])

Container that holds a control.


partial(func, *args, **keywords) - new function with partial application of the given arguments and keywords.

class**kwargs: Any)


Preview app.

Preview notebook files in the terminal.

Outputs a formatted notebook file. The formatted output will be written to the the output file path given by output_file (the standard output by default).

async cancel_and_wait_for_background_tasks() None

Cancel all background tasks, and wait for the cancellation to complete. If any of the background tasks raised an exception, this will also propagate the exception.

(If we had nurseries like Trio, this would be the __aexit__ of a nursery.)

cleanup(signum: int, frame: FrameType | None) None

Restore the state of the terminal on unexpected exit.

cleanup_closed_tab(tab: Tab) None

Exit if all tabs are closed.

clipboard: Clipboard
close_tab(tab: Tab | None = None) None

Close a notebook tab.


tab – The instance of the tab to close. If None, the currently selected tab will be closed.

property color_depth: prompt_toolkit.output.color_depth.ColorDepth

The active ColorDepth.

The current value is determined as follows:

  • If a color depth was given explicitly to this application, use that value.

  • Otherwise, fall back to the color depth that is reported by the Output implementation. If the Output class was created using output.defaults.create_output, then this value is coming from the $PROMPT_TOOLKIT_COLOR_DEPTH environment variable.

color_palette: ColorPalette
context: contextvars.Context | None
cpr_not_supported_callback() None

Called when we don’t receive the cursor position response in time.

create_background_task(coroutine: Coroutine[Any, Any, None]) _asyncio.Task[None]

Start a background task (coroutine) for the running application. When the Application terminates, unfinished background tasks will be cancelled.

Given that we still support Python versions before 3.11, we can’t use task groups (and exception groups), because of that, these background tasks are not allowed to raise exceptions. If they do, we’ll call the default exception handler from the event loop.

If at some point, we have Python 3.11 as the minimum supported Python version, then we can use a TaskGroup (with the lifetime of Application.run_async(), and run run the background tasks in there.

This is not threadsafe.

create_merged_style() prompt_toolkit.styles.base.BaseStyle

Generate a new merged style for the application.

Using a dynamic style has serious performance issues, so instead we update the style on the renderer directly when it changes in self.update_style


Return a combined style to use for the application

property current_buffer: prompt_toolkit.buffer.Buffer

The currently focused Buffer.

(This returns a dummy Buffer when none of the actual buffers has the focus. In this case, it’s really not practical to check for None values or catch exceptions every time.)

property current_search_state:

Return the current SearchState. (The one for the focused BufferControl.)

dialogs: dict[str, Dialog]
draw(render_as_done: bool = True) None

Draw the app without focus, leaving the cursor below the drawn output.

exit(result: _AppResult | None = None, exception: BaseException | type[BaseException] | None = None, style: str = '') None

Optionally pipe the output to a pager on exit.

focus_tab(tab: Tab) None

Make a tab visible and focuses it.

focused_element: FocusableElement | None
full_screen: bool
future: Future[_AppResult] | None
get_edit_mode() prompt_toolkit.enums.EditingMode

Return the editing mode enum defined in the configuration.

get_file_tab(path: Path) type[Tab]

Return the tab to use for a file path.

get_file_tabs(path: Path) list[type[Tab]]

Return the tab to use for a file path.

get_used_style_strings() list[str]

Return a list of used style strings. This is helpful for debugging, and for writing a new Style.

graphics: WeakSet[Float]
async classmethod interact(ssh_session: PromptToolkitSSHSession) None

Run the app asynchronously for the hub SSH server.

invalidate() None

Thread safe way of sending a repaint trigger to the input event loop.

property invalidated: bool

True when a redraw operation has been scheduled.

property is_done: bool
property is_running: bool

True when the application is currently active/running.


The InputProcessor instance.

classmethod launch() None

Launch the app.

load_container() prompt_toolkit.layout.containers.FloatContainer

Return a container with all opened tabs.

classmethod load_input() Input

Create the input for this application to use.

Ensures the TUI app always tries to run in a TTY.


A prompt-toolkit input instance

load_key_bindings() None

Load the application’s key bindings.

classmethod load_output() Output

Load the output.

Depending on the application configuration, will set the output to a file, to stdout, or to a temporary file so the output can be displayed in a pager.


A container for notebook output

log_stdout_level: str = 'CRITICAL'
loop: AbstractEventLoop | None
menus: dict[str, Float]
mouse_limits: WritePosition | None
mouse_position: Point
name: str = 'preview'
need_mouse_support: bool = False
open_file(path: Path, read_only: bool = False, tab_class: type[Tab] | None = None) None

Create a tab for a file.

  • path – The file path of the notebook file to open

  • read_only – If true, the file should be opened read_only

  • tab_class – The tab type to use to open the file

open_files() None

Open the files defined in the configuration.

pager: Pager | None
pause_rendering() None

Block rendering, but allows input to be processed.

The first line prevents the display being drawn, and the second line means the key processor continues to process keys. We need this as we need to wait for the results of terminal queries which come in as key events.

This is used to prevent flicker when we update the styles based on terminal feedback.

post_load() None

Allow subclasses to define additional loading steps.

post_load_callables: list[Callable[[], None]]
pre_run(app: prompt_toolkit.application.application.Application | None = None) None

Call during the ‘pre-run’ stage of application loading.

pre_run_callables: list[Callable[[], None]]
print_text(text: AnyFormattedText, style: BaseStyle | None = None) None

Print a list of (style_str, text) tuples to the output. (When the UI is running, this method has to be called through run_in_terminal, otherwise it will destroy the UI.)

  • text – List of (style_str, text) tuples.

  • style – Style class to use. Defaults to the active style in the CLI.


Quoted insert. This flag is set if we go into quoted insert mode.

refresh() None

Reet all tabs.


Render counter. This one is increased every time the UI is rendered. It can be used as a key for caching certain information during one rendering.

reset() None

Reset everything, for reading the next input.

resume_rendering() None

Reume rendering the app.

run(pre_run: Optional[Callable[[], None]] = None, set_exception_handler: bool = True, handle_sigint: bool = True, in_thread: bool = False) prompt_toolkit.application.application._AppResult

A blocking ‘run’ call that waits until the UI is finished.

This will start the current asyncio event loop. If no loop is set for the current thread, then it will create a new loop. If a new loop was created, this won’t close the new loop (if in_thread=False).

  • pre_run – Optional callable, which is called right after the “reset” of the application.

  • set_exception_handler – When set, in case of an exception, go out of the alternate screen and hide the application, display the exception, and wait for the user to press ENTER.

  • in_thread – When true, run the application in a background thread, and block the current thread until the application terminates. This is useful if we need to be sure the application won’t use the current event loop (asyncio does not support nested event loops). A new event loop will be created in this background thread, and that loop will also be closed when the background thread terminates. When this is used, it’s especially important to make sure that all asyncio background tasks are managed through get_appp().create_background_task(), so that unfinished tasks are properly cancelled before the event loop is closed. This is used for instance in ptpython.

  • handle_sigint – Handle SIGINT signal. Call the key binding for Keys.SIGINT. (This only works in the main thread.)

async run_async(pre_run: Optional[Callable[[], None]] = None, set_exception_handler: bool = True, handle_sigint: bool = True, slow_callback_duration: float = 0.5) prompt_toolkit.application.application._AppResult

Run the prompt_toolkit Application until exit() has been called. Return the value that was passed to exit().

This is the main entry point for a prompt_toolkit Application and usually the only place where the event loop is actually running.

  • pre_run – Optional callable, which is called right after the “reset” of the application.

  • set_exception_handler – When set, in case of an exception, go out of the alternate screen and hide the application, display the exception, and wait for the user to press ENTER.

  • handle_sigint – Handle SIGINT signal if possible. This will call the <sigint> key binding when a SIGINT is received. (This only works in the main thread.)

  • slow_callback_duration – Display warnings if code scheduled in the asyncio event loop takes more time than this. The asyncio default of 0.1 is sometimes not sufficient on a slow system, because exceptionally, the drawing of the app, which happens in the event loop, can take a bit longer from time to time.

async run_system_command(command: str, wait_for_enter: bool = True, display_before_text: AnyFormattedText = '', wait_text: str = 'Press ENTER to continue...') None

Run system command (While hiding the prompt. When finished, all the output will scroll above the prompt.)

  • command – Shell command to be executed.

  • wait_for_enter – FWait for the user to press enter, when the command is finished.

  • display_before_text – If given, text to be displayed before the command executes.


A Future object.

search_bar: SearchBar | None
suspend_to_background(suspend_group: bool = True) None

(Not thread safe – to be called from inside the key bindings.) Suspend process.


suspend_group – When true, suspend the whole process group. (This is the default, and probably what you want.)

property tab: Tab | None

Return the currently selected tab container object.

property tab_idx: int

Get the current tab index.

tabs: list[Tab]

Like Vim’s timeoutlen option. This can be None or a float. For instance, suppose that we have a key binding AB and a second key binding A. If the uses presses A and then waits, we don’t handle this binding yet (unless it was marked ‘eager’), because we don’t know what will follow. This timeout is the maximum amount of time that we wait until we call the handlers anyway. Pass None to disable this timeout.

property title: str

The application’s title.


When to flush the input (For flushing escape keys.) This is important on terminals that use vt100 input. We can’t distinguish the escape key from for instance the left-arrow key, if we don’t know what follows after “x1b”. This little timer will consider “x1b” to be escape if nothing did follow in this time span. This seems to work like the ttimeoutlen option in Vim.

update_edit_mode(setting: Setting | None = None) None

Set the keybindings for editing mode.

update_style(query: TerminalQuery | Setting | None = None) None

Update the application’s style when the syntax theme is changed.


Vi state. (For Vi key bindings.)

class IO[str] | TextIO, isatty: bool = True)

Bases: object

Make an output stream look like a TTY.

fake_tty = True
isatty() bool

Determine if the stream is interpreted as a TTY.

Get the current application.